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五方面理解“新基建”內涵與重點

發布日期: 2020-07-09 信息來源:欧宝体育

   以(yi)數字經(jing)(jing)濟為代表(biao)的新(xin)經(jing)(jing)濟,在當今(jin)代表(biao)著(zhu)發展前沿(yan)、發展方向(xiang)、發展趨勢和發展未來。新(xin)經(jing)(jing)濟,意(yi)味著(zhu)需要與(yu)之相(xiang)適應、相(xiang)配套的新(xin)型基礎設(she)施。近期以(yi)來,關于(yu)新(xin)型基礎設(she)施建設(she)成為各界廣泛熱議的話題。這里,擬(ni)從五(wu)個(ge)維度深(shen)刻理(li)解“新(xin)基建”的內涵與(yu)深(shen)義。

   從狹(xia)義與廣義角(jiao)度認(ren)識“新基建”

   2018年(nian)12月(yue)19日,中央(yang)經濟工(gong)(gong)作會(hui)議(yi)將(jiang)5G、人工(gong)(gong)智(zhi)能、工(gong)(gong)業互聯(lian)網(wang)、物(wu)聯(lian)網(wang)定義為(wei)“新(xin)(xin)(xin)型基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)”,即“新(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”,作為(wei)官方首次提(ti)(ti)出(chu)這一概念。2019年(nian)政府工(gong)(gong)作報(bao)告要求(qiu),“加強新(xin)(xin)(xin)一代信息基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)”。2020年(nian)2月(yue)3日至3月(yue)4日,僅中央(yang)層面至少5次部署與(yu)“新(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”相關的(de)任務,主要包括七大領域: 5G基(ji)站建(jian)設(she)、特高(gao)壓(ya)、城際高(gao)速鐵路(lu)和城市軌道交(jiao)通(tong)、新(xin)(xin)(xin)能源汽車充電樁、大數據中心(xin)、人工(gong)(gong)智(zhi)能和工(gong)(gong)業互聯(lian)網(wang)。2020年(nian)政府工(gong)(gong)作報(bao)告提(ti)(ti)出(chu),重點支(zhi)持“兩新(xin)(xin)(xin)一重”建(jian)設(she)。“兩新(xin)(xin)(xin)”為(wei)新(xin)(xin)(xin)型基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she),新(xin)(xin)(xin)型城鎮化(hua)建(jian)設(she);“一重”為(wei)交(jiao)通(tong)、水利等重大工(gong)(gong)程建(jian)設(she)。

   梳理發(fa)(fa)現,“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”可分為狹(xia)義“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”和廣義“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”。其中(zhong)(zhong),狹(xia)義“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”指數字基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi),包(bao)括(kuo)5G基(ji)(ji)(ji)站建(jian)(jian)設(she)(she)、大數據中(zhong)(zhong)心、人工智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)(neng)、工業(ye)(ye)互(hu)聯網等(deng)。廣義“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”指融(rong)合基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi),包(bao)括(kuo)特高(gao)壓、新(xin)(xin)能(neng)(neng)源汽車充電樁、城(cheng)(cheng)際高(gao)速鐵路和城(cheng)(cheng)市軌(gui)道交(jiao)通,以及交(jiao)通、水(shui)利(li)(li)重大工程等(deng)。也就是說,利(li)(li)用新(xin)(xin)一代信息技術對包(bao)括(kuo)能(neng)(neng)源、交(jiao)通、城(cheng)(cheng)市、水(shui)利(li)(li)在內的(de)傳統基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)進行數字化(hua)改造(zao),進而(er)形成融(rong)合基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi),例如智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)能(neng)(neng)源基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)交(jiao)通基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)城(cheng)(cheng)市基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)水(shui)利(li)(li)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)等(deng)。作為廣義“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)”,不(bu)僅服(fu)務于(yu)(yu)智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)農業(ye)(ye)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)制造(zao)業(ye)(ye)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)服(fu)務業(ye)(ye))、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)企業(ye)(ye)、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)政府(fu)發(fa)(fa)展,還服(fu)務于(yu)(yu)智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)能(neng)(neng)源、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)交(jiao)通、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)城(cheng)(cheng)市、智(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)慧(hui)(hui)水(shui)利(li)(li)發(fa)(fa)展;不(bu)僅服(fu)務于(yu)(yu)供給端生(sheng)產(chan)方式(shi)革命,還服(fu)務于(yu)(yu)需求端生(sheng)活方式(shi)革命,進而(er)推動中(zhong)(zhong)國社會全(quan)面(mian)進入數字經濟時代。

   5G與數據

   為新(xin)型基(ji)礎(chu)設施提供支(zhi)撐

   關于新型基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),目前(qian)業(ye)界有“七領(ling)域說(shuo)(shuo)”、“三大(da)類說(shuo)(shuo)”(2020年4月20日,在國家發(fa)改委新聞發(fa)布會上明(ming)確“新基(ji)(ji)建”的(de)范圍,包(bao)(bao)括(kuo)信(xin)息(xi)基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)、融(rong)合基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)、創(chuang)新基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)等(deng)(deng)(deng)三大(da)類)、“兩分法說(shuo)(shuo)”等(deng)(deng)(deng)。即狹(xia)義(數(shu)(shu)(shu)字)基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),泛(fan)指(zhi)以(yi)互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)為(wei)代表的(de)新一代信(xin)息(xi)技(ji)術(shu)(shu)群(qun),簡稱(cheng)為(wei)“新技(ji)術(shu)(shu)群(qun)”,包(bao)(bao)括(kuo): 大(da)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據、云計算、互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)、物(wu)(wu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)、人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能、智(zhi)(zhi)能終端;ICT(信(xin)息(xi)通信(xin)技(ji)術(shu)(shu))、DT(數(shu)(shu)(shu)字技(ji)術(shu)(shu))、CPS(信(xin)息(xi)物(wu)(wu)理(li)融(rong)合系(xi)統)、VR(虛(xu)擬現實)、AR(增(zeng)強(qiang)現實)、區塊鏈(lian);識(shi)別技(ji)術(shu)(shu)(指(zhi)紋、語音(yin)、臉部)、無(wu)人(ren)(ren)技(ji)術(shu)(shu)、3D技(ji)術(shu)(shu)、5G技(ji)術(shu)(shu),等(deng)(deng)(deng)等(deng)(deng)(deng)。概括(kuo)說(shuo)(shuo)來,狹(xia)義(數(shu)(shu)(shu)字)基(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)走向(xiang)大(da)致如下: 從(cong)(cong)PC互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)到(dao)(dao)(dao)移動互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang),從(cong)(cong)消(xiao)費互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)到(dao)(dao)(dao)產業(ye)互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang),從(cong)(cong)互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)到(dao)(dao)(dao)物(wu)(wu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang),從(cong)(cong)萬(wan)物(wu)(wu)互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)到(dao)(dao)(dao)萬(wan)物(wu)(wu)智(zhi)(zhi)能,從(cong)(cong)物(wu)(wu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)到(dao)(dao)(dao)智(zhi)(zhi)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang),從(cong)(cong)弱人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能到(dao)(dao)(dao)強(qiang)人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能,從(cong)(cong)強(qiang)人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能到(dao)(dao)(dao)超人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能。總(zong)之,一切都體現為(wei)“互(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)(hu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)+、物(wu)(wu)聯(lian)(lian)(lian)網(wang)(wang)(wang)(wang)+、大(da)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據+、區塊鏈(lian)+、人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)(gong)智(zhi)(zhi)能+”等(deng)(deng)(deng)。

   需特別指出,新(xin)型基礎設施(shi)也(ye)需要基礎設施(shi)的(de)支撐,首先是(shi)5G,所有應用場景必須依托(tuo)5G。其特點一是(shi)高(gao)(gao)速率。一般(ban)認為,5G網速是(shi)4G的(de)50-100倍。二(er)是(shi)低時(shi)延。一般(ban)認為,5G網絡有著低至1毫秒的(de)延遲。三是(shi)廣覆蓋(gai),包括更多設備、更大(da)范(fan)圍、更高(gao)(gao)容(rong)量(liang)。一般(ban)認為,5G容(rong)量(liang)是(shi)4G的(de)數十倍。四是(shi)高(gao)(gao)可靠,包括高(gao)(gao)感知性(xing)(xing)(xing)、高(gao)(gao)安(an)全性(xing)(xing)(xing)、高(gao)(gao)穩定性(xing)(xing)(xing)、高(gao)(gao)靈敏度。五是(shi)高(gao)(gao)成本(ben),包括基站(zhan)密度之高(gao)(gao),投資巨(ju)大(da)。

   其(qi)次是數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju),所有經(jing)濟活動(dong),必須依托數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)具有價(jia)值,通(tong)過數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)采集(ji)、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)儲存、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)加工、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)集(ji)成、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)分析(xi),實現數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)作為生產要(yao)素(su)驅動(dong)經(jing)濟增長。然(ran)而,數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)孤(gu)島、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)壁壘導致(zhi)的數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)碎(sui)片化,在(zai)很(hen)大程度上降低(di)了數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)價(jia)值。鑒此,實行數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)開放,一則數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)跨界融合(he),二則數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)跨界共享。這(zhe)里(li),部門利(li)益(yi)、數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)保護等體制性(xing)、政(zheng)策性(xing)問題必須引起高(gao)度重視一并(bing)加以解決。

   “新基(ji)建”與“老基(ji)建”相互(hu)補(bu)充相互(hu)支持

   基礎設施(shi)的本(ben)質(zhi)就是互(hu)聯(lian)互(hu)通(tong)發揮連接作(zuo)用(yong)。一是打通(tong)實(shi)體(ti)(ti)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)之(zhi)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的相(xiang)互(hu)聯(lian)系,二是打通(tong)虛(xu)(xu)擬(ni)(ni)(ni)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)之(zhi)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的相(xiang)互(hu)聯(lian)系,三是打通(tong)實(shi)體(ti)(ti)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)和虛(xu)(xu)擬(ni)(ni)(ni)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)之(zhi)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的相(xiang)互(hu)聯(lian)系。空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)是人類從(cong)事(shi)一切經濟活動的場所。隨著時代(dai)變化(hua),對(dui)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的認識也(ye)(ye)在(zai)不斷深化(hua)。空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)1.0主要指(zhi)陸域(yu)(yu);空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)2.0增加了海(hai)域(yu)(yu),包括淺海(hai)深海(hai)、近海(hai)遠海(hai);空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)3.0則進一步增加了空(kong)(kong)域(yu)(yu),包括低空(kong)(kong)、高(gao)空(kong)(kong)、太空(kong)(kong);空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)4.0又(you)增加了虛(xu)(xu)擬(ni)(ni)(ni)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。當今社會(hui),正是借助基礎設施(shi),不僅陸域(yu)(yu)海(hai)域(yu)(yu)空(kong)(kong)域(yu)(yu)融為一體(ti)(ti),而且實(shi)體(ti)(ti)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)與虛(xu)(xu)擬(ni)(ni)(ni)空(kong)(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)也(ye)(ye)融為一體(ti)(ti)。

   傳(chuan)統(tong)基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)大多局限于實體空(kong)間尤其陸域,重在(zai)有形連(lian)(lian)接(jie),即“橋連(lian)(lian)接(jie)”,主(zhu)要(yao)包(bao)括公(gong)路、鐵路、機場、港口(kou)、碼頭(tou)、橋梁等(deng),俗稱“鐵公(gong)基(ji)”。新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)不(bu)僅在(zai)實體空(kong)間,更拓展至虛(xu)擬(ni)空(kong)間,重在(zai)無形連(lian)(lian)接(jie),即“云連(lian)(lian)接(jie)”,主(zhu)要(yao)包(bao)括以互聯網為代(dai)表的新(xin)(xin)一代(dai)信息技(ji)術群(qun),也稱“云設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)”。鑒此,“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”和“老(lao)基(ji)建(jian)”不(bu)是相(xiang)互排斥、相(xiang)互替代(dai)關(guan)(guan)系(xi),而(er)是相(xiang)互補(bu)充、相(xiang)互支(zhi)持關(guan)(guan)系(xi)。新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi),不(bu)僅提(ti)升了傳(chuan)統(tong)基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)功能,而(er)且放大了傳(chuan)統(tong)基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)作用。“新(xin)(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”加力,“老(lao)基(ji)建(jian)”改造,可(ke)以更好(hao)發揮基(ji)礎(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)“雙輪”驅動作用。

   需(xu)要指出的(de)是(shi),作(zuo)為(wei)新(xin)型基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施(shi)建(jian)(jian)設(she),中國在(zai)(zai)消費(fei)互聯(lian)網領(ling)(ling)域處于國際領(ling)(ling)先(xian)水(shui)平,其(qi)標志是(shi),線(xian)(xian)上購物(wu)、線(xian)(xian)上支付(fu)、線(xian)(xian)上學(xue)習(xi)、線(xian)(xian)上會議發展(zhan)迅速,特別是(shi)新(xin)冠肺炎疫情暴發以來,國人已逐漸習(xi)慣(guan)線(xian)(xian)上生活。同時,產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)互聯(lian)網領(ling)(ling)域基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施(shi)建(jian)(jian)設(she)仍(reng)然滯后于發達國家,表(biao)現在(zai)(zai)工作(zuo)人員遠程辦(ban)公率(lv)、企業(ye)(ye)(ye)數字(zi)技(ji)術滲透(tou)率(lv)、制造產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)機(ji)器人密(mi)度(du)等指標遠低(di)于發達國家。這里,不僅(jin)需(xu)要正確認識“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)”和“老(lao)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)”的(de)關系(xi),更(geng)要正確處理“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)”中消費(fei)互聯(lian)網和產(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)互聯(lian)網的(de)關系(xi)。

   推動“新基建”的同時要培育“新企業”

   發展數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)已(yi)成(cheng)為(wei)全(quan)球(qiu)各國重(zhong)塑(su)經(jing)濟(ji)形(xing)態(tai)的(de)共同(tong)選(xuan)擇,以數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)為(wei)代表的(de)新經(jing)濟(ji)在轉型發展中(zhong)形(xing)成(cheng)強(qiang)勁勢頭。根據(ju)中(zhong)國信息通信研(yan)究(jiu)院(yuan)《全(quan)球(qiu)數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)新圖景(2019)》研(yan)究(jiu)報告,2018年(nian),美(mei)(mei)(mei)國數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)規(gui)模為(wei)12.34萬(wan)億美(mei)(mei)(mei)元,位(wei)(wei)居(ju)全(quan)球(qiu)第一(yi)位(wei)(wei),占其GDP的(de)60.2%;中(zhong)國為(wei)4.73萬(wan)億美(mei)(mei)(mei)元,位(wei)(wei)居(ju)全(quan)球(qiu)第二位(wei)(wei),占GDP的(de)34.8%。進一(yi)步(bu)比較(jiao)可知,2018年(nian),中(zhong)國GDP總量是美(mei)(mei)(mei)國的(de)66.3%,然(ran)而,中(zhong)國數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)規(gui)模僅為(wei)美(mei)(mei)(mei)國的(de)38.3%。盡管中(zhong)美(mei)(mei)(mei)在數字(zi)(zi)經(jing)濟(ji)發展中(zhong)處于(yu)全(quan)球(qiu)領先(xian)地位(wei)(wei),但是,二者之(zhi)間仍然(ran)存在較(jiao)大差距也是客(ke)觀現實。

   毋庸置(zhi)疑(yi),“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”既是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)強(qiang)化(hua)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟發(fa)展(zhan)的基(ji)礎保障(zhang),又是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)推進(jin)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟增長的重要引(yin)擎,更是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)融入數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟時代的關鍵設施。加快數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟發(fa)展(zhan),其(qi)(qi)抓(zhua)手(shou)一(yi)只是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”,另一(yi)只是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)“新(xin)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)”,兩者(zhe)之中任何其(qi)(qi)一(yi)不(bu)可偏(pian)廢。何況(kuang),“新(xin)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)”是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)實(shi)施“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”的核心主體。實(shi)踐(jian)表(biao)明,“新(xin)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)”在數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據驅(qu)動增長中會(hui)發(fa)揮先導優勢、起著引(yin)領作用。據統計,截至2017年3月,全球(qiu)10大超(chao)級數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)平臺(tai)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)全部來(lai)(lai)自(zi)美國和(he)中國。其(qi)(qi)中,美國7家(jia),包括(kuo)蘋果、谷歌、微軟等(deng),占其(qi)(qi)總(zong)市值的78.5%;中國3家(jia),包括(kuo)阿里巴巴、騰訊、百度,占其(qi)(qi)總(zong)市值的21.5%。今后,中國各地(di),一(yi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)重點支持一(yi)批BAT這樣一(yi)類超(chao)級數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)平臺(tai)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)成長,二(er)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)加快發(fa)展(zhan)一(yi)批類似頭條、小米、滴(di)滴(di)這樣的獨角獸(shou)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye),三是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)全力推出一(yi)批瞪羚(ling)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye),它們代表(biao)著一(yi)個地(di)方的數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟發(fa)展(zhan)質量和(he)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)經(jing)濟活躍程度。未來(lai)(lai)超(chao)級數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)字(zi)平臺(tai)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)、獨角獸(shou)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)、瞪羚(ling)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)勢必成為(wei)地(di)方經(jing)濟發(fa)展(zhan)的標配,要像大規模從事“新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)”一(yi)樣,大批量培育“新(xin)企(qi)(qi)(qi)業(ye)(ye)”。

   從思維層面理(li)解“新基建(jian)”的(de)重要(yao)意(yi)義

   近期,各地(di)掀起新(xin)一(yi)輪的(de)(de)“新(xin)基(ji)建”熱潮(chao),這(zhe)既(ji)是(shi)(shi)應對當前經(jing)(jing)濟下行壓力的(de)(de)需要(yao),更是(shi)(shi)布局(ju)未來經(jing)(jing)濟高效發力的(de)(de)需要(yao)。需要(yao)指出的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi),新(xin)型基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施,既(ji)是(shi)(shi)基(ji)礎(chu)設(she)施,也是(shi)(shi)數字技術,還是(shi)(shi)先進產業,更是(shi)(shi)一(yi)種思維(wei)方式。因此,對“新(xin)基(ji)建”的(de)(de)理解,不能僅局(ju)限于物質層面,更需要(yao)拓展至思維(wei)層面。

   進入21世紀以來(lai),以互聯網為(wei)代表的新(xin)一(yi)(yi)代信息技術革命,加快引致經濟(ji)社會活動發生(sheng)(sheng)重(zhong)大變化(hua): 一(yi)(yi)是(shi)從(cong)(cong)(cong)低速狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai)轉(zhuan)向高速狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai),其表現(xian)為(wei)“四個周期”變短: 產業(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)命周期變短,產品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)命周期變短,技術生(sheng)(sheng)命周期變短,知(zhi)識(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)命周期變短,這對各行各業(ye)形成全(quan)新(xin)挑戰(zhan)。二是(shi)從(cong)(cong)(cong)確(que)定(ding)性(xing)(xing)情(qing)(qing)景轉(zhuan)向不(bu)確(que)定(ding)性(xing)(xing)情(qing)(qing)景,不(bu)確(que)定(ding)性(xing)(xing)成為(wei)常態(tai)(tai),任何重(zhong)大決策活動都將置于“VUCA”情(qing)(qing)景(V,易變性(xing)(xing);U,不(bu)確(que)定(ding)性(xing)(xing);C,復雜(za)性(xing)(xing);A,模糊性(xing)(xing))。三是(shi)從(cong)(cong)(cong)線性(xing)(xing)變化(hua)轉(zhuan)向非線性(xing)(xing)變化(hua)。數(shu)字經濟(ji)時代,打(da)造指數(shu)型(xing)組織,推(tui)動指數(shu)型(xing)成長成為(wei)必(bi)(bi)須,也(ye)就意味著高速度(du)增長和(he)高質量發展兩者(zhe)融(rong)為(wei)一(yi)(yi)體、相互加持。四是(shi)從(cong)(cong)(cong)實(shi)體空(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)轉(zhuan)向虛(xu)擬(ni)(ni)空(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian),虛(xu)實(shi)空(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)兩者(zhe)打(da)通融(rong)為(wei)一(yi)(yi)體;不(bu)僅如此,虛(xu)擬(ni)(ni)空(kong)間(jian)(jian)(jian)具有“三零一(yi)(yi)無”特點,即零時間(jian)(jian)(jian)、零距離、零成本、無邊界。五(wu)是(shi)從(cong)(cong)(cong)同道(dao)追趕(gan)轉(zhuan)向換道(dao)超車,跨界競爭成為(wei)必(bi)(bi)然,新(xin)業(ye)態(tai)(tai)新(xin)模式層出不(bu)窮,構建數(shu)字經濟(ji)生(sheng)(sheng)態(tai)(tai)成為(wei)大勢。

   隨著經(jing)濟社會從非(fei)信(xin)息化(hua)(hua)、非(fei)數(shu)字化(hua)(hua)、非(fei)智能(neng)化(hua)(hua)、非(fei)網(wang)(wang)絡(luo)化(hua)(hua)向信(xin)息化(hua)(hua)、數(shu)字化(hua)(hua)、智能(neng)化(hua)(hua)、網(wang)(wang)絡(luo)化(hua)(hua)的(de)全面轉(zhuan)型,人類生活(huo)方式、生產方式乃至思維方式發生重大革命(ming),一切(qie)都(dou)在顛覆之中(zhong),一切(qie)都(dou)在重構之中(zhong)。因此,不能(neng)就“新(xin)基(ji)(ji)建(jian)”談(tan)“新(xin)基(ji)(ji)建(jian)”,正確的(de)思維方式是跳出“新(xin)基(ji)(ji)建(jian)”談(tan)“新(xin)基(ji)(ji)建(jian)”,由此才能(neng)認清“新(xin)基(ji)(ji)建(jian)”的(de)深刻、深遠、深情意義。

(作(zuo)者系中國社(she)會科學院數量經(jing)濟與技術經(jing)濟研究(jiu)所副所長、研究(jiu)員) 

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